Literature as Vision in “The Pedestrian”

In Ray Bradbury’s The Pedestrian, Leonard Mead is the last pedestrian in a city of millions in 2053 AD. He walks just to walk, to breathe fresh air, to see. He walks every night in the desolate streets while everyone else is inside watching “viewing screens. Leonard walks, “occasionally picking up a leaf as he passed, examining its skeletal pattern in the infrequent lamplights as he went on, smelling its rusty smell.”

I love this image of Leonard smelling a single leaf, himself the single lit soul remaining in a world made lifeless by screens.

Bradbury wrote the story in the early 1950s as the first TVs made their way into American homes; the story, therefore, projects 100 years into the future. In my lesson on the story, I talk about analyzing setting and character. The real conflict in this story derives from a character (Leonard) so at odds with his own society (2053 AD).

I give some guidance for developing statements of theme. The story brings up so many thematic questions: How does technology impact a society? What happens when an individual chooses to live differently from their society? What does it mean to live? What is necessary for human life? Bradbury’s poetic writing and his loving and tragic portrayal of Leonard, who loves nothing more than to walk and to breathe in the smell of a skeletal leaf, has imprinted in me. As many times as I read the story, I feel it again or I see something anew, every time I read it. I’m so grateful to Bradbury for writing it.

I suppose the story imprints its pattern upon me, or I feel this gratitude, because sometimes I, too, feel like Leonard Mead walking my solitary walk a bit at odds with any society I’ve lived in. I’m a poet, and I love nothing more than to write some words in a notebook which may never see a printing press. I’m a teacher of literature and love nothing more than to guide other people into a story or poem which I believe can change a life. Yet sometimes I still doubt the value of it all. I struggle to justify the hours spent on these most important tasks when there are bills to be paid and current events to act on, and when a day must be useful, productive. I get lost again in those loud cultural messages to do, to earn, to buy, to go, to produce.

So Bradbury, in writing this story years ago, connects to me here today. I read Leonard’s story. and I feel the solidarity and connection in living a bit at odds with my surroundings, in being a poet of words and of life. At one point in the story, Leonard is asked, “Do you have a profession?” And when he answers, “I’m a writer,” the character answers, “No profession.” He gets a similar quiet judgment when he says he’s not married. But Leonard smiles. He knows his own values. I can’t help but think Bradbury must have felt similarly to Leonard. I saw in an interview recently that Bradbury never owned a car or learned to drive. I imagine him walking just as Leonard walked, as people raced home to flick on the TV; I see him smiling a bit when people asked if he had a “real job.” He didn’t. And how valuable his work was.

This connection I feel through this story (and many, many others) Bradbury had the gall to set down on paper despite the demands of his society and of even well-intentioned voices urging him to be a bit more “normal,” is the kind of connection I hope to offer as a writer and a teacher. I can only hope that something I write, or a lesson I give, can continue that chain of support, of value for life and its questions. Even in my doubt, I trust the value of words and stories, and I want to give a bit of that faith to others — a middle school kid who has a story to write, a person in some faraway country who is learning language.

Literature offers vision. Bradbury sees trends in his own time, his own society, and projects 100 years into the future. Look what is happening now. What will the world look like if this continues? What could happen if … Sometimes we’re astonished when writers or thinkers are able to predict the future. How could they see, even then? We mistake this for magic. But the truth is, the seeds of what will be are already around us; most of the time we’re too wrapped up in the way we see now, our daily duties, or “real jobs” to see the patterns and possible trajectory. Stories allow a space for imagination and vision to be explored and seen. Oftentimes I think the tragedy of humanity is our failure to see clearly what is happening now, to accept the truth, and to act collectively. I feel pretty cynical about this most of the time, apart from great examples like Civil Rights movements in the US or South Africa. The ending of Bradbury’s story, you’ll see, is pretty cynical about what society does to visionaries, writers, thinkers. Or maybe it’s a warning, a reminder of the value of writers and of words. What gives me hope is the stories themselves that continue to be told. What would these movements be without Martin Luther King, Jr.’s eloquent words, the story he told to mobilize action? Stories can envision, articulate, connect us, and heal.

Visit ELLiterature home to find more lessons and offerings for literature lovers and English learners.

Ernest Hemingway – Every Word Tells

This short passage (Chapter VII from In Our Time) packed full of poetic prose is a great first lesson on close reading, I have never taught a group who didn’t connect with this powerful block of words, or who were not moved by both the will to survive and the pointlessness of life contained in these lines — as well as the power and complexity that so few words can evoke.

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These short interludes, neat little blocks of prose, interspersed throughout the longer short stories are so powerful. They’re a great example of William Strunk’s famous phrase when describing the importance of omitting needless words: “This requires not that the writer make all his sentences short, or that he avoid all detail and treat his subjects only in outline, but that every word tell.”

Let’s start with just the first sentence. Read it a couple of times. Underline all the details you can find about setting, character, and the conflict of the story just in the first sentence. Don’t read ahead!

While the bombardment was knocking the trench to pieces at Fossalta, he lay very flat and sweated and prayed oh jesus christ get me out of here.

What details did you find about setting?

  • Fossalta (Where do you think that is, Italy?)
  • a trench
  • there’s a “bombardment” – a war?

Ernest Hemingway was an ambulance driver for the Red Cross in Italy during World War I. What do you know about WWI and trench warfare?

Ernest Hemingway, September 1918, Milan, Italy
Credit: Ernest Hemingway Photograph Collection/John Fitzgerald Kennedy Library, Boston. WikiCommons.

You could do a bit of background research if you’d like. One important aspect for this piece is how futile, or worthless and hopeless, soldiers felt; they went to war expecting honor and glory, and they spent their days sitting in trenches waiting to attack or be attacked, with very little movement in contrast with intense moments of mass death and violence. Later in the war, the introduction of poison gases made the deaths they witnessed nearly unspeakable.

  • Who are the characters we see already in this first sentence? What do we know about them?


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See more poetry and fiction lessons on ELLiterature!

Prose Poem Lesson: “Hairs” by Sandra Cisneros

The House on Mango Street is full of short passages perfect for beginning and intermediate English learners.

The vocabulary is not overly challenging, and yet you’ll find new words to study. And best of all, even with very simple language, these short pieces of fiction resonate. There’s so much meaning and feeling packed into every word and every page.

See the free lesson on “Hairs” on ELLiterature here. (Includes a creative writing prompt inspired by the story!)

The narrator of House is Esperanza, a girl growing up on Mango Street in a neighborhood that doesn’t match her dreams. Here’s what Cisneros said about creating Esperanza:

MONTAGNE: Sandra Cisneros, give us a little sense of what the world was like when you created Esperanza.

Ms. CISNEROS: Well, I was fresh out of graduate school. I had started Esperanza in Iowa at the University of Iowa, feeling very displaced and uncomfortable as a person of color, as a woman, as a person from working-class background. And in reaction to being there I started to have some Mango Street almost as a way of claiming this is who I am. It became my flag. And I realize now that I was creating something new. I was cross-pollinating fiction and poetry and writing something that was the child of both. I was crossing borders and I didn’t know it.

She goes on to say:

Cisneros: When I wrote “House,” when I started it, I didn’t think I was giving voice to Latino women. I thought I was just finally speaking up. I had been silenced, made to feel that what I had to say wasn’t important.

I wanted to write something in a voice that was unique to who I was. And I wanted something that was accessible to the person who works at Dunkin Donuts or who drives a bus, someone who comes home with their feet hurting like my father, someone who’s busy and has too many children, like my mother. I wanted this to be lyrical enough so that it would pass muster with my finicky classmates, but also open to accept all of the people I loved in the neighborhood I came from.

Source: ‘House on Mango Street’ Celebrates 25 Years. NPR. April 9, 2009.

Cisneros articulates here why I think this book is so accessible for English learners, both in readability and meaning. The cross between poetry and prose she has created (which she didn’t even realize she was creating at the time of writing) makes the stories accessible in length and at the same time, as is characteristic of poetry, so much meaning resonates in every word. With a few vocabulary clarifications, readers can connect with complicated emotions and questions of life.

She’s also created pieces that busy working people would read right alongside the literary crowd. These “borders” she walks in both form and writing style make House moving and real. In unassuming language, Cisneros gives us a voice in Esperanza and an experience of her family and neighbors that feels real for all those on their own version of Mango Street, which doesn’t quite match up to the ideal, for all those who dream.

I’ll leave you with a snapshot from another interview. Here’s what Cisneros said when asked how she felt about her book being taught so widely in American schools today. It’s something I think about as a teacher: Sometimes when we bring a book into a classroom, it can lose its magic, its connection. When we’re asked to analyze it, to answer questions, to break it down, the experience of reading is often different than if we connect to it on our own. Yet, gaining the skills to read more closely in a language classroom can also help us appreciate what we read more. Her answer reminds me why I teach literature and to strive to let the book do its work, “play its music,” in addition to what I feel is important to teach students:

Q: What is it like knowing that this book is taught so widely in American schools today?

A: I don’t take it personally. It has nothing to do with me, or with my book. The book is being taught because it is telling a story that has spiritual resonance at this time in history. It is serving a need, it is doing its healing, it is transmitting light, but I was just the conduit for that light, not the source. I am grateful that the timing was right for my labor to be recognized, and that the readers were ready to hear this story at this time. I am fortunate and blessed to be the flute, but I recognize and acknowledge I am not the music.

Source: Interview with the Chicago Public Library:

See the free lesson on “Hairs” from ELLiterature here! + a creative writing prompt inspired by the story.

ELLiterature was created as an answer to a problem I found in teaching ELL students. “Classic” literature (though it has its place) had too much antiquated vocabulary and was difficult for students to connect to. “Abridged” texts were … boring. I’m creating a collection of accessible poems and short stories for those learning English and for their teachers. Find texts, lessons, and teacher resources on ELLiterature!

3 Short Stories for English Learners

I started ELLiterature in response to a challenge I and other teachers and students had in finding accessible literature for English learners to read.

Maybe you’ve experienced what I’ve experienced. “Classic” literature, written hundreds of years ago, is valuable, but the vocabulary is just not suited for those learning English, at least at first.

And many abridged stories, with their original language stripped down, are just boring.

I’m creating a collection of useable ESL, ELL, TEFL poetry, short stories, and nonfiction. I’ve included free teacher resources and student lessons that take you step-by-step through poems and short stories. Bonus, I’m also adding creative writing activities.

So here are a few recommendations to get you started! There is a free lesson on Sandra Cisneros’s “Hairs” (link below) and many more lessons to come! Also check back for online courses and book club offerings. Happy reading!

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Sandra Cisneros’s rich, poetic collection of very short vignettes is told from the point of view of Esperanza, who is growing up on Mango Street in a neighborhood with much to be desired.

Each story is a page or two long, and the vocabulary is accessible for ELLs and also rich and beautiful. There is so much value per word or page in this collection that English leaners will find much to enjoy and much to discuss. Appropriate for upper middle school through adults.

Read a sample and find a free lesson on “Hairs” here, PLUS a bonus creative writing prompt!

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In “The Pedestrian,” the main character is the last person who walks at night, just for enjoyment, while everyone else sits inside watching “viewing screens” the size of their walls. Like in so many of his stories, Bradbury has a way of seeing what is to come (“The Pedestrian” was published in 1951).

His stories are fitting for ELLs because he poses interesting problems of culture and society with accessible language and vivid characters, images, and plot turns that make great discussion starters as well as points of entry to talk about literary elements.

Check back soon to see a free lesson on “The Pedestrian” (more stories to come)!

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Flash Fiction is just what it sounds like — very short pieces of fiction that tell a story in a “flash.” The length alone makes these stories ideal for ELLs.

While some stories may contain very challenging vocabulary, this collection in particular includes engaging and meaningful stories such as Julia Alvarez’s “Snow,” a relatable piece for anyone who has moved (or dreams of moving) to the US and sees snow for the first time. You’ll find 72 different passages here, most appropriate for adult, university-aged, and even upper high school learners.

Check back soon to see a free lesson on “Snow” from this collection!

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